What is Logistics?

We will give some basic information about logistics in that post. You would find replies to important questions such as; What is logistics? Logistics management importance. Logistics department duties etc.

The origin of the word logistics is Greek.  Logistikos This means "computational science" and "computationally skilled.”

Logistics is used in two senses. The first of these is “Military information, food, and beverage, health and communication services, road conditions, etc. The section that brings together the studies that aim to keep them in the most effective condition. " The second is "Back service".

As the first word meaning suggests, the word logistics is essentially a military term, so the first applications were in the military fields. Its importance was understood in World War II and now the word logistics has been viewed as a scientific issue. If you need to exemplify, America; It provided logistical support to British and French soldiers. Germany, on the other hand, thinks it is inevitable to end the logistical support of its enemies in order to win the war faster. For this, he bombed submarines and shipping ships of America and sunk into the sea, and caused America to join the war. As can be understood from the example, the crowded army alone was insufficient in World War II. It was vital that armies were equipped with weapons, vehicles, and, of course, the personnel to handle them. It is clear from this that perfect logistics planning is needed to be successful in a move.

In short, it is a transportation service that includes planning, organizing, and analyzing principles to ensure that logistics goods and services are delivered to the end consumer in a flawless and error-free manner.

Now let's get back to today. You can find all details of logistics listed below.


Logistics is a very wide definition to explain at once. Therefore we made an important list to explain logistics better;


According to the list above, we would start to explain each in detail. Here are basic definitions about Supply chain, Physical distribution, Packaging, Clearance, Storage, Stock management; 

What is the supply chain?

The sale of a product or service to the end consumer is the movement between the wholesale distributor, the distributor, the retailer, and finally the consumer.

Supply chain components are of three. Actors, activities, and resources.

  • Actors: Supplier, manufacturer, customer, transporters, warehouses, distribution channel members…
  • Resources: HR, materials, financial, resources, information
  • Activities: Planning, sourcing, delivery…


What is the Physical Management or Physical Distribution?

It is to inspect the stock controls required to reach the consumers of the produced goods, to ensure their packaging, to carry out information communication, and to physically transport them. Please check one of the solutions SPEETTA that inksen created about this topic.

What is the Packaging?

Packaging is a packaging process that ensures that a product is protected and maintained. The type of packaging is examined under two headings. These ;

  • Primary packaging: It is the first packaging process that provides preservation and protection of a product against external factors. It is in direct contact with the product. Foods that are sold openly are not usually either, they have carried in packages such as sacks
  • Secondary packaging: It is a type of packaging that includes primary packaging. During transportation, there are parcels, boxes, cardboard, and cases.


Companies that adopt customer satisfaction can spend a lot of money on packaging. Good packaging is essential to keep the customer. Poor packaging causes customer loss. Market strategy, product, price, place, promotion. The new strategy of marketing also includes packaging as one of the P. ( product, price, place, promotion)

What is the customs clearance?

Customs clearance is the control of goods and services coming from or sent to a foreign country during their exit or entry into the country under state supervision. Briefly, it is done as follows;

  • The production of the product must be completed, the necessary packaging must be made and ready for export.
  • Transport organization should be made ready
  • Loads must be loaded and brought to carrier warehouses
  • Necessary documents should be prepared according to the legislation of the exporting country.
  • Customs declaration must be prepared
  • When necessary, the goods should be inspected.
  • Separation of goods from the export region
  • The transaction must be closed with the export customs declaration.

What is the Storage?

It is the place where products from certain points are protected for a certain period of time during the delivery to the consumer. It has three different names and they take these names according to the waiting time of the products.

The name of the warehouse is the first of these and it is the name given to places with a long waiting period.

The distribution center is the second and is the name given when the time is short.

The transfer center is the name given when the time is minimized.


What is the Stock Management?

All planning and control processes in order to meet the demands and store the products as needed are called inventory management. Stock management requirements are two.

  • Statistical stock controls
  • Material requirement planning

Some of the main branches of the logistics industry are in this way. Now let's examine the types of logistics.



Logistics is examined under 4 separate headings. Each of them has a different approach. Here are the categories

  • Production logistics,
  • Supply logistics,
  • Distribution logistics,
  • Return logistics.


What is the Production Logistics?

It covers the planning, control, and management of all goods flows and their information in businesses used by manufacturing industries. Pre-production logistics, on the other hand, is the whole of the activities carried out for the operation of the system that ensures the distribution of product stocks collected from the manufacturer to customers.

What is the Supply Logistics?

We can say that it is the whole of activities that include planning the entry of goods and services from the manufacturer to the warehouse, retail warehouses, ensuring product flow and supply chain.

What is the Distribution Logistics?

It is the distribution of products to customers and markets as a result of the completion of production stages. This process is the delivery to the market or directly to the customer through physical distribution channels.

What is the Return Logistics?

Return logistics; We can call planning, implementation, control, inventory process, final product raw material cost impact process according to the value of the required information from consumption to the beginning.



Transport is one of the key parts of logistics. It means which vehicle the product will use in the transportation process between two points. It is examined under two titles and the titles have subtitles.

Unimodal transportation

  • Highway transports,
  • Sea transport,
  • Airways transporting,
  • Railway Transportation,
  • Pipeline Transportation,
  • River Road Transport


Multimodal transportation

  • Intermodal Transport
  • Combined Transport


What is Unimodal Transportation?

It is the transportation of goods by only one of one or more transportation ways (road, seaway, airline, railway, pipeline, river road).

Highway transports; It is one of the most preferred transportation types due to the ease of loading and unloading operations.

Sea transports; Since it is the safest and cheapest cost (7 times according to the road, 22 times according to the airline, 3.5 times compared to railway), it is the most used transportation type internationally.

Airways transporting; It is a type of transportation that can be preferred for distances more than 500 km due to the speed factor.

Railway Transport; It can be transported for long distances at less cost than road

Pipeline Transport; It is safe for transporting liquid or gaseous materials such as petroleum, natural gas, but has low flexibility. Pipeline in Turkey in recent years has increased the demand for transport.

River Transport; It is used frequently and widely in Europe.


What is Multimodal Transport?

It is a type of transport with multiple vehicles, different types of transport, and vehicles.

  • Intermodel Transportation; It is defined as carrying with more than one transportation method without changing within the same transportation method with a single loading.
  • Combined Transport; It is the transportation of the load in a transport unit with at least two transportation methods without the need for reloading.


We hope that posts about some key points of logistics are useful for you. Please check our blog post that may help you to understand some important topics. Please share your comments and give your valuable feedback.

If you want to reach all inksen academy posts, please click the link.

inksen academy - 1.2.2021